Ayşe Melis Yılmaz Arha318

The fieldtrip 2 was containing; The cistern underneath Kadir Has University, Cibali Campus, Gul Camii (Hagia Theodosia), The Greek Orthodox Patriachate and the church of St. George, The area of Balat/Fener, The Church of St. Mary of the Mongols, The Parekklesion of St. Mary Pammakaristos.
The first place was the museum in Kadir Has University. I think it was an important think that rich families collect the historical monuments because I cannot imagine what if they would be today. Probably most of them would be in other counties of damaged or even lost. Also this situation reminded me, a precious connection for me and this class, the kind of same movement of the rich families’ or dynasties’ trial in Byzantium, by having these important monuments as an indicator of their wealth. Even we can name it as the ideology ‘philanthropy’ it does not matter what the name it is, if we have these monuments today.
The building of the campus was interesting because it was turned from a tobacco factory but the factory was also constructed on a cistern which is still could not be brought out wholly. Because we could not take photographs, I am very sorry. The process of digging is really important because it will orient the historians to have a more accurate knowledge about the real construction years of that cistern. I can say that, it was the most interesting place for me in this trip because the monument was not restorated yet and I felt really a witness of a great historical process. With the researches I did, I also learned that there are generally three layers one over the other. One, the deepest of them is from 11th century as Byzantine cistern. There is an Ottoman bathhouse from 17th century and lastly, there is the tobacco factory lying on which is turned into a university and a museum today. But as I mentioned before, the accurate information is not found out that yet.
The other monument that I really liked is again Gül Camii. It was also very interesting because that it was another structure that had a cistern under it. But very sadly, it was filled with earth and also there was garbage on it. In this point, I really wish something happen about that area too. As another sad point, Gül Camii was not a mosque before but a church, but the changing of it was really unsuccessful. A cement construction for a highly precious structure is disappointing which is the especially entrance part of the mosque. In the article Gül Camii, it is also mentioned that there are some disputes about the exact construction year
In conclusion, I can say that this fieldtrip was more exciting from the first one because the historical monuments that we visit were still alive and it was really difficult to interpret the real condition of that monument with really few ruins. Generally the other monuments also very precious to understand the lifestyle and settlement of Byzantine and early İstanbul but the reason that I especially told about these two monuments is because they were not brought out and restorated yet. Lastly, as a last sentence that I can say I really appreciate to instructor for giving this course not only from the book but also in real.

Tarihce, Rezan Has Müzesi, http://rhm.org.tr/tr/tarihce.php

Ayşe Melis Yılmaz

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 20:18  Leave a Comment  


Our second fieldtrip started on an early and very cold Saturday morning from a very old part of Istanbul, Cibali, neighborhood where Kadir Has University’s main campus is situated. Building of the Kadir Has University consists of 4 layers. At the bottom layer there is a Byzantine cistern dating back to the 11th century and on top of it, ruins of a historical hammam belonging to the Ottoman Empire dating back to the 17th century and The Cibali Tobacco Factory built in late 19th century on top of this foundation.

Constantinople, a capital city with no rivers and few springs, needed water reservoir to satisfy the water need of the city. Most cisterns were built between the late 4th century and early 7th century as population increased. Water was carried into open and covered cisterns and they supplied water to about 40 public baths as well as monasteries and churches. The major cisterns were usually placed on hills.

A Byzantine cistern called “The Dark Fountain/ Karanlık Çeşme” is located at the museum site, inside the Rezan Has Museum Golden Horn Cultures. This cistern is one of the few Byzantine constructions along the Golden Horn apart from the city walls. With its 48 columns and 24 domes, the Dark Fountain was built to meet the water needs of the district. The cistern was brought to light during excavations in 1944 by Istanbul Archaeological Museums.
As you go trough to cistern you can smell the moisture and see moss and fungus on columns. The ground of the cistern was covered with archeological soil because the place was used for storage and dumping in Ottoman period.

After the conquest of Istanbul, the cistern was used as a hammam in the 17th century and witnessed the historical events of that period. The Cibali Tobacco Factory which built on top of the Byzantine cistern was an important institution during the Ottoman Empire. It changed the neighborhood socially and economically. Its large factory building housed both tobacco processing and cigarette production. There were 2162 people working there, mostly women. It is presumed that the cistern was used as a shelter by the workers of the tobacco factory in the pre-republican period. The cistern also served as a warehouse for food. With the establishment of republic the control of the factory passed to the state. The factory, most of which by that time had been shut down, was totally abandoned in 1995. After 2 years later, government handed the buildings over to Kadir Has University.

The architects in charge of the restoration and renovation worked together with university planners and have taken great care to preserve the original character and architectural integrity of the buildings, while transforming factory building into a university campus. After 4 years of restoration work, between 1998 and 2002, the Tekel Cibali Cigarette Factory was transformed from a warehouse that produced and sold tobacco into a university by the Kadir Has Foundation.
The main building of the Kadir Has University rooted in a history of 1400 years won the 2003 Europe Nostra Award, the European Union Prize for Cultural Heritage as the best preserved building.

The history of the Kadir Has University building was an interesting one. It can be clearly realized and understood why it won the Europe Nostra Award. I knew that the building once was a tobacco factory but I didn’t know that it was founded on a Byzantine cistern. It is disappointing that responsible officials didn’t give us permission to take photos of the cistern. People who goes and sees this beautiful and impressive cistern can’t share their experience in detail due to lack of photos as evidence. As a result, the Byzantine cistern lacks the recognition and awareness of the inhabitant of Istanbul and tourists.

• Cyril Mango, Katherine M. Kiefer, William Loerke “Constantinople, Monuments of” The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan. © 1991, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Koc University. 8 January 2010 http://www.oxford-byzantium.com/entry?entry=t174.e1228.s0002



Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 18:00  Leave a Comment  

Parekklesion of St. Mary Pammakaristos

David Bergstein

I thought the most fascinating aspect of the last field trip was the visit to parekklesion of St. Mary Pammakaristos. This church was located in an area called Carshamba, and simply walking through this more conservative side of Istanbul was an interesting experience for me as an exchange student, having previously been exposed to only to the more cosmopolitan aspects of the city like Sultanahmet and Taksim. The church was built by the Palailogan Dynasty, specifically in the 14th century, making it one of the last signfiicant churches to be constructed in Constantinople before the fall of the city to the Ottomans in 1453. The ottomans eventually converted the church into a mosque, the Fetiye Camii. However, the Parakklesion of the church has been beautifully restored, and is a beautiful example of the cross in square church architecture that characterized Byzantine church construction during the late and middle Byzantine periods. In addition to the large central dome, the cross in square church plans have smaller domes in each of the corners of the “cross,” creating a powerful, opening effect. What was particularly striking to me about this church was the feeling of vertical lift achieved by the dome. The church itself is in a relatively small space, but the incredibly sharp angle of the lift opening creates a feeling of a much larger and more inspiring area. The church is also decorated with a multitude of beautiful mosaics, and I believe that the arraignment of mosaics is done in such a way as to create a hierarchy of images, with an image of the Jesus (the pantocrator) in the top of the dome, and various scenes of the saints and old testaments in the alcoves and niches surrounding it. The apse is similarly decorated with a tile mosaic of Jesus, again surrounded by other christian images. The final point of interest about this church was the dichotomy between the presence of the large mosque and the newly restored church, demonstrating the somewhat contrasting architectural and artisitc legacies of the city. We are fortunate that the plaster used to cover these images when the church was converted into a mosque did such a good job preserving them.

Cormack, R.. (2000) Byzantine Art. Oxford: Oxford UP.

“The Parajjkesuib if St. Mary Pammakaristos” http://www.byzantium1200.com/pamma.html

“The Fethiye Camii” Arch Net

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 17:28  Leave a Comment  

Emre Gürsoy Fener and the Greek School

Fener and the Greek Orthodox College
In our second trip, the most fascinating part was Fener with its spectecular image and large history.
Fener, konwn as Phanar, is a neighborhood midway up to the Golden Horn, within the borough of Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey (former Constantinople). There are many historical streets with wooden houses, synagogues and churches remained from Byzantine and Ottoman times.
The neighborhood became home of the most Greeks after the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Also Greek Orthodox Patriarchate was moved to this area. It is still located in Fener. Therefore, Fener has a role like Vatican (Roman Catholic Church) with its Patriarchate (Orthodox).
Greek School (known as Megalo Scholion or Greek Orthodox College) is one of the important monuments that still remained. It was established by Matheos Kamariotis in 1454. Then, it became functioning as a school. Greeks, Bulgarians and some Ottoman ministers were graduated from it.
The School was located in Fener, near the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate (also the church of St. George’s). It was designed then constructed by an Ottoman Greek architect Dimadis, between 1881-1883. It has a different style because Dimadis used many different architectural techniques in the building. Therefore, it is a nice example of an architectural mixture. Also, the building’s shape seems like a castle. Therefore, despite its function as a school, Fener Greek Orthodox College is also referred as the 5th largest castle in Europe. It has a large dome at the top which there is a antique telescope inside for astronomy classes.
Greek School still remaines its function under the authority of the government in contemporary Turkey. If you are interested deeply, then the official website of the school is http://www.frl.k12.tr/index.aspx Bibliography
-“Τριανταφυλλίδης On line Dictionary”. Φανάρι (3α). http://www.komvos.edu.gr/dictonlineplsql/simple_search.display_full_lemma?the_lemma_id=15948&target_dict=1. Retrieved October 7, 2006. -Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium
-Dr. Alessandra Ricci. Fener, Istanbul, 19 December 2009.

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 17:10  Leave a Comment  

Ozlem Bilgic-the Cistern and Kadir Has University Cibali Campus

Ozlem Bilgic- the Cistern and Kadir Has University Cibali Campus
The first stop of our second field trip was the cistern underneath to Kadir Has University. This university is constructed above three historical places. One is the Byzantine cistern and the other is a 19th century Ottoman tobacco factory. The cistern is waiting to be excavated because even if it is under the protection of the Kadir Has University there a lot of historical evidence to be proven. For example, it is known that after the cistern was no longer in usage, the inhabitants of the neighborhood were using the places as a garbage area. This remains of garbage can be good evidences of the daily life and archaeologist should profit on this site. On the other hand,even the cistern is dating back to the 11th century, it is debatable subject among archaeologists. In additionto this the cistern has 48 columns adn 24 domes and it was discovered during the excavations in 1944.When you enter to the cistern the humidity of the air and the wet ground make easier to imagine the place as it was centuries ago. On top of this area there are ruins of a 17th century Ottoman hammam. And then, during the 19th century, this building became a tobacco factory which was proving a job opportunity to the neighborhood but particularly to the women because the women worker population was more then men worker population. And this job opportunity helped to change the socioeconomic condition to this district. Finally in 1997 with the opening of the Kadir Has University, the building came to its fourth and final stage. I think that this university is fairly respectful to the historical heritage of this Istanbul and helping to us to observe a brief summary of the history of the city. Özlem Bilgiç Bibliography;
Kadir Has Muzesi, Istanbul, Conference Site, 8 January 2010. http://www.istr.org/conferences/istanbul/conf_site.htm Rezan Has Muzesi, Tutun Fabrikası, http://www.rhm.org.tr/tr/tutun.php
Cyril Mango “Constantinople” The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Ed. Alexander P. Kazhdan. © 1991, 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc.. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium: (e-reference edition). Oxford University Press. Koc University. 8 January 2010 http://0-www.oxford-byzantium.com.libunix.ku.edu.tr:80/entry?entry=t174.e1226

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 17:04  Leave a Comment  

Z. Doğa Ortaköylü Cistern underneath Kadir Has University, Cibali campus

I never knew that there was a cistern underneath the Kadir Has University Cibali Campus near Halic. That building has four layers. In the bottom layer there was a Byzantine cistern beginning from11th century. On top of it there was an Ottoman bath dated to 17th century and at last on third layer there was a Tobacco Factory named Cibali dated to 1880’s.

The cistern under the campus was used for water needs of the province. It is a Byzantine style cistern which has 24 vaults and 48 columns. This cistern was founded in 1944 by archaeological excavations. Before Republican era during the warfare workers at Tobacco Factory used cistern as a shelter. Also they stored food in the cistern at those times. After invasion of Istanbul by Ottomans, in the 17th century, cistern was used as an Ottoman bath and the part which used for this purpose founded in excavations. In the last 20 years conservation of structure of started again.

In Tobacco Factory usually women work there. It was a European form of industrial architecture. Then, industrial archaeology abandoned, turned into university. Later on transformation in the neighborhood started again. That was social gentrification and it had strong effect in the lives of city.

Kadir has University located near Halic. That place in the past was docking and harbor area. Venetians were given section of Golden Horn where they can trade. Then, they built ships there. Ottomans built arsenals to compete with them. Clusters of western trades in the city started to be seen. Later on, the area abandoned. In 1950’s area abandoned and continuity of life in this neighborhood stopped.

I would like to write some of the features of the cistern too. When we come inside the cistern we realized that it was like a building support construction. We saw some reliefs on the columns. We learned that they were dumping in cistern. In 13th century cistern was not functioning.


Gülhan Balsoy (2009). Gendering Ottoman Labor History: The Cibali Régie Factory in the Early Twentieth Century. International Review of Social History, 54 , pp 45-68



Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 16:39  Leave a Comment  

The Parekklesion of the church of Theotokos Pammakaristos (Will Wyeth)

The Parekklesion of the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos stands today as one of the greatest testaments to the brilliance of the ‘renaissance’ of Byzantine art under the Palaiologan dynasty. The building forms part of a larger picture of rebirth and rejuvenation in the artistic sense at a time when the state of the empire itself was in permanent decline. The entire complex, both church (today the Fethiye Camii) and the Parekklesion (now a museum) also tell a great deal about the evolution of a new kind of institution in the Byzantine empire, urban Monasticism, which began in the 5th century in Constantinople and has never stopped since.

The Parekklesion of the Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos was the funerary chapel of the main church, or Katholikon. The building itself is believed to have been built some 40 years after the recapture of Constantinople from the Latins (1261), soon after 1304, in the reign of Andronikos II Palaiologos (r. 1282-1328); indeed many of the buildings built during this period are associated with either his family or members of his court. The original monastic church, or Katholikon, was built at an earlier time, but its precise date of construction is unknown. The Parekklesion, or funerary chapel, was commissioned by the widow of Michael Glabas Tarchaneiotes, a general of the empire, and is a prime example of post-1261 artistic decoration.

The primary image of the building is the Christ Pantokrator (‘Ruler of All’), resident in the main dome at the centre of the church. Just below are twelve apostles of the Old Testament, each inside a recess of the dome. The decoration of the apse features a ‘Deisis’ depiction of Christ, the Theotokos (literally, ‘Mother of God’) and Iohannes Prodromos (John the Baptist), easily recognisable with his long shaggy beard and wrinkled expression. There are also a great number of other mosaics, including scenes from the life of Christ (including the Baptism) as well as individual icons to saints and church fathers. All the images and icons are on a gold background, reinforcing both the divinity of the individuals or events portrayed as well as the rich decoration of the whole building.

The architecture of the building itself is both remarkable and indicative of the purpose and period in which it was built. The building itself is very small, with the area at the centre of the chapel below the dome measuring under four metres square. The modest size of the ‘footprint’ of the building is in stark contrast with its relative height, and this is most clearly exemplified again in the central dome area of the building and its supporting structures, namely the pendentives, arches and pillars. The arcuate design of the architecture, with its many angles and arches, is an feature indicative of churches and associated buildings of this period in Byzantine history. Other buildings from this era, such as the Chora Monastery, echo the wall construction of the Parekklesion, and may indeed have been built by the same workshop. The size and impression of this Parekklesion contrasts strongly with churches of other periods, such as the St. Sophia at the heart of the Constantinople, with its large surface areas and monumental impression. Furthermore this was a chapel to an individual, and as such a large building would weaken the connection of building to person. The church also feature several acrosolia, where the sarcophagi of the dead would have been placed to rest.

From a personal perspective, this building is singly the most beautiful and both architecturally & artistically astounding building from the Byzantine period in Istanbul. The mosaics are typical of a rich and profound tradition of icons strongly resonant of the Byzantine tradition. The overwhelming impression achieved from standing directly under the principle dome is akin to that felt in the Aya Sofya (Hagia Sophia); yet whereas in the Aya Sofya one grasps the monumental scale of both the building itself and the society which built it, in the Parekklesion of the church of Theotokos Pammakaristos one feels the slowing pulse of a very old empire with very old traditions. For me it epitomises the longevity and indomitable tradition and culture which were to outlive the fall of the capital Constantinople in 1453, a time which many attribute (falsely) to be the end of Byzantium. I am relieved to see how the building has been preserved, and furthermore that it has been made into a museum for the people of Turkey and the world to see. Although not on the traditional tourist trail in the old part of the city of Istanbul, it is definitely worth a visit. Sources:

Cormack, Robin., Byzantine Art (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000)

Ćurčić, Slobodan & Mouriki, Doula., The Twilight of Byzantium: Aspects of Cultural and Religious History in the Late Byzantine Empire (Papers from the Colloquium held at Princeton University, 8-9 May 1989) (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991)

Fryde, Edward., The Early Palaiologan Renaissance (1261-c. 1360) (Leiden: Brill Academic Publishing, 2000)

Herrin, Judith., Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire (London: Allen Lane, 2007)

Will Wyeth

Dr. Ricci’s fieldtrip to Fatih

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 15:56  Leave a Comment  


Our second fieltrip is made in Golden Horn started with Kadir Has Cibali Campus and finished with Churh of Pammakaristos in Carsamba. We saw and explore lots of Byzantine monument situated in Golden Horn district in this fieldtrip like Rezan Has Museum and the cistern situated in Rezan Has Museum, Red School, Fener Grec Patriarchate and the churc in partiarchate and Churh of Parmakkaristos. All of them are really interesting monuments especially the appearance of the Red School is really magnifique. However among all of this monuments Church of Parmmakaristos is the most interesting monument as for me with its situation and its magnifique mosaics made with gold and very difficult workmanship.
The building is located in the Çarşamba neighbourhood within the district of Fatih inside the walled city of İstanbul in which the most heavy islamist population of Istanbul live that’s why even the survive of the church is a very important issue as for me.Theotokos Pammakaristos overlooks the Golden Horn. Pammakaristos Church,also known as the church of theotokos Pammakaristos(joyous mother of god), later known as Fethiye mosque and today partly a museum, is one of the most famous Byzantine churches in İstanbul,turkey.The Pammakaristos was either built or renovated to a large extent by Michael Tarchaniostes Glabes,protostrater of Andronicus II Palaeologus(1282-1328).What is certain is that Tarchaniotes was the founder of the elegant paresslesion added to the South side of the church.It has also been suggested that the original building was erected in the 8th century.It was used as the Patriarchate in 1454 after the conquest of Constantinople.After the conquest,it remained under the control of Christians and used as a women’s monastery, in 1455 patriarchate has been moved to this building and the building has been used as patriarchate until 1586.The Ottoman Sultan Murad III converted the church into a mosque and renamed it in honor of his Fetih of Georgia and Azerbaijan, hence the name Fethiye Camii.To accommodate the requirements of prayer, most of the interior walls were removed in order to create a larger inner space.A part of the apse was removed and a niche was built showing the direction of Mecca.A minaret and medrese were also added.The Comnenian building was a church with a main aisle and two deambulatoria, and had three apses, and a narthex to the west.The masonry was typical of the Comnenian period, and adopted the technique of the recessed brick.In this technique, alternate coarses of brick are mounted behind the line of the wall, anda re plunged in a mortar’s bed, which can stil be seen in the cistern underneath and in the church. The transformation of the church into a mosque changed the original building greatly. Its architecture and mural decoration are of great interest.During the Republic,frescoes and mosaics inside were uncovered in 1955 and it became a muesum.The arch built by the Ottomans was replaced by columns as the original.At the entrance, there is a well preserved frescoe on the wall with “three wise man”,and some fragments of other frescoes.In the 1960’s the mosque was once again opened for worship is still in use, while the parakkleison section of the building remained as a museum.The parekklesion represents the most beautiful building of the Byzantine period in Constantinople. Bigliography

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 15:49  Leave a Comment  

The Second Fieldtrip in Çarşamba (Nil Hocaoglu)

The parekklesion of St. Mary Pammakaristos

We went for our second fieltrip to Çarşamba. It was a very cold day but the fieldtrip was very exciting. We visited many different places and saw monuments like the cistern in Kadir Has University, St. Mary of the Mongols etc. In my opinion, the most impressive one was the parekklesion of St. Mary Pammakaristos which is located at the south side of the monastic church, St Mary Pammakaristos. The monastic church was also known as “The All Blessed Mother of God”. It stands on the fifth hill, overlooking to the Golden Horn. The church was built by the John Komneos in the 12th century. After the Latin occupation, the church was damaged and it was restored by the Michael Tarchaneiotes Glabas who was the nephew of the emperor Michael VIII Palaeologos. After the death of Michael Glabas, his widow Maria built a funeral chamber for his memory, south parekklesion in the 14th century. The parekklesion was dedicated to Christ ho Logos (Christ the Word) by Maria. The parekklesion is not only the most important examples of the Palailogan architecture in Constantinople, but also has the largest amount of the Byzantine mosaics after the Hagia Sophia and Chora Church. The chapel was built on a cross-square plan which was spread in Byzantine after the 9th century. In this type of plan there was a narthex in the entrance and a dome in the center which rises above the drum and supported by four columns. In the upper side of the chapel, it was decorated by many different mosaics. When you pass the narthex to enter the chapel you would see an apse mosaics of Christ Hyperagathos. There are figures of Christ, the Virgin and the John Baptist and together they form a Deesis. The dome in the center has decorated with Christ Pantokrator and he is surrounded by Twelve Prophets. The vaults are decorated with figures of saints and scene of baptism. The chapel cannot be explained by words. In my opinion everybody should visit and feel the feeling that I felt about that magnificent building. After the Ottoman conquest, the monastic church was converted into a mosque. (Fethiye Camii) However, they did not destroy the mosaics of the parekklesion and it is converted into a museum. So it is an important chance for us to see this amazing monument.

1) Cormack, R.. (2000) Byzantine Art. Oxford: Oxford UP.
2) Meriçtoyn, Y.A. (1994). Tarih Öncesi Çağlardan Osmanlı Devrine kadar İstanbul’un Tarihsel Gelişimi ve Bizans’ın Temel Yapıları: Dünden Bugüne İstanbul Ansiklopedisi, vol 3. İstanbul: Ana Basım.
3) Millingen, A.V. (1912). Byzantine Churches in Constantinople: Their History and Architecture.

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 14:01  Leave a Comment  

Ayşe Aslıhan Ağralı- Cibali, the past, the Museum and the Neighborhood

Back in 1884, Cibali Tobacco Factory was an important foundation for changing the social and economic conditions of its neighborhood.
The Factory started progress right after 1900’s and it was used for tobacco processing and cigarette producing.
When we visited Kadir Has University Cibali Campus on 19th December 2009, it was impossible for me to guess that, in the early 20th century, approximately 1500 women and 662 men were working in the place. In contrast, another subject that I want to touch on is that I just mentioned more than two times of men were women in the Factory in Cibali back in 1990’s, but now, a close neighborhood of Cibali, in Çarşamba I think a really few women in the area work. It was really interesting to see that neighborhood, when we were on our way to Pammakaristos Church. Çarşamba is an interesting quarter of Istanbul; women are all covered in black, man are preferring baggy trousers instead of trousers, even the little children have coif on their heads and it is possible to see Arabic letters on the display windows of the stores.
The cistern underneath the building of Kadir Has University was also breathtaking; it is superb that the cistern is being preserved in such good condition. I think the museum is also a must see, where you can see Byzantine tools form the early centuries.
I think Rezan Has Museum should have more ads, to get more attention and visitors. Thanks to Alessandra Ricci, that we had the opportunity to visit those places that Saturday. Ayşe Aslıhan Ağralı
Tutun, Rezan Has Museum. Accessed online, 8 January 2010.
Cibali Tobacco Factory Photo Gallery, Kadir Has University. Accessed online, 8 January 2010.
http://www.khas.edu.tr/en/university-tour/photo-gallery/cibali-tobacco-factory.html About Us, Kadir Has University. Accessed online, 8 January 2010. http://www.khas.edu.tr/en/about-khu/our-history.html
Kadir Has Museum, Istanbul, Conference Site. Accessed online, 8 January 2010. http://www.istr.org/conferences/istanbul/conf_site.htm

Published in: on January 8, 2010 at 13:18  Leave a Comment